Ovarian Cancer Exosomes Promote Niche Formation for Metastatic Growth
Posted: Thursday, October 31, 2019
A review, published in Molecular Cancer, highlighted the role of exosomes produced by ovarian cancer cells as coordinators of niche formation for subsequent rapid metastatic growth. Zhenfeng Duan, MD, PhD, of the University of California at Los Angeles, and colleagues discuss how these exosomes may be used as potential biomarkers receptive to liquid biopsy and therapeutic targets in the future.
In an effort to characterize the mechanisms driving ovarian cancer metastasis and associated biomarkers, the authors gathered results from many recent studies of ovarian cancer–derived exosomes. This review aims to improve the available information on premetastatic niche formation to earlier diagnose and treat patients with stage I ovarian cancer.
According to recent studies, premetastatic niche formation is a common precondition of metastasis. Prior to metastatic growth in the peritoneal cavity, the primary ovarian tumor releases exosomes that prepare a supportive environment for accelerated metastatic invasion through immunosuppression, angiogenesis, stromal cell remodeling, and oncogenic reprogramming. More recently, the role of cell-shed exosomes has been identified, suggesting they may prove to be critical players in shaping the tumor microenvironment. Exosomes coordinate intercellular communication between tumor cells and normal stroma, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and local immune cells.
“Emerging technologies such as liquid biopsy will likely further characterize their tumorigenic effects in vivo and may help to fully reveal the clinical significance of these prometastatic factors in ovarian cancer,” the authors concluded.
Disclosure: The study authors reported no conflicts of interest.