Tumor-Lysis Syndrome in Patients With Genitourinary Cancers
Posted: Wednesday, April 3, 2019
Tumor-lysis syndrome is associated with a high mortality rate in patients with genitourinary cancers, according to a literature review and pooled analysis of published cases by Jue Wang, MD, FACP, of the University of Arizona Cancer Center, Phoenix, and colleagues. The findings on this rare but life-threatening complication were presented at the 2019 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium in San Francisco (Abstract 533).
“[Tumor-lysis syndrome] should be considered on the differential diagnosis, when evaluating renal failure and electrolyte derangement in patients with metastatic [genitourinary] cancers with liver metastases,” the investigators commented.
Data on 180 patients with tumor-lysis syndrome were collected; the median age of patients was 57 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.7. Of the total, the most common tumor sites were gastrointestinal (29%), genitourinary (22%), lung (16%), melanoma (11%), and breast (8.3%). Tumor-lysis syndrome was seen in 68% of patients resulting from cancer therapy, whereas it occurred spontaneously in the remaining patients. In 70% of the patients, liver metastasis was documented. High mortality was associated with older age and liver metastasis.
After the investigators compared clinical features, treatment, and outcomes, the morality rate of tumor-lysis syndrome was 70% in patients with renal cell carcinoma, 67% in those with urothelial carcinoma, 64% in those with prostate cancer, and 50% in patients with testicular germ cell tumor.
Disclosure: The study authors’ disclosure information may be found at coi.asco.org.